An Introduction to Genetic Engineering (Studies in Biology) by Dr Desmond S. T. Nicholl

Molecular Biology

By Dr Desmond S. T. Nicholl

Des Nicholl provides a brand new, absolutely revised, and multiplied variation of his well known undergraduate-level textbook. The e-book keeps the various beneficial properties of the unique version and nonetheless bargains a concise technical advent to the topic of genetic engineering. it really is divided into 3 major sections: uncomplicated molecular biology, tools of gene manipulation, and sleek functions of genetic engineering. purposes lined within the ebook contain genomics, protein engineering, gene treatment, cloning, transgenic animals and vegetation, and bioethics. An creation to Genetic Engineering is key interpreting for undergraduate scholars of biotechnology, genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry.

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Extra info for An Introduction to Genetic Engineering (Studies in Biology)

Sample text

1 Type II restriction endonucleases Restriction enzyme nomenclature is based on a number of conventions. The generic and specific names of the organism in which the enzyme is found are used to provide the first part of the designation, which comprises the first letter of the generic name and the first two letters of the specific name. Thus an enzyme from a strain of Escherichia coli is termed Eco, one from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is Bam, and so on. Further descriptors may be added, depending on the bacterial strain involved and on the presence or absence of extrachromosomal elements.

The whole process can be carried out in a Pasteur pipette, with the labelled DNA coming off the column first, followed by the free nucleotides. Fractions can be collected and monitored for radioactivity, and the data used to calculate total activity of the DNA, specific activity, and percentage incorporation of the isotope. Radioactive labelling techniques are still used extensively in gene manipulation experiments, but pose some problems. There is the question of safety, as some high-energy radioisotopes are potentially hazardous.

A site for starting transcription is required, and this encompasses a region which binds RNA polymerase, known as the promoter (P), and a specific start point for transcription (TC). A stop site for transcription (tC) is also required. e. the DNA region that is copied into RNA. Within this transcriptional unit there may be regulatory sites for translation, namely a start site (TL) and a stop signal (tL). Other sequences involved in the control of gene expression may be present either upstream or downstream from the gene itself.

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