Advanced configurations for very large transport airplanes by J. H. McMasters, I. M. Kroo

Aviation

By J. H. McMasters, I. M. Kroo

Plane layout 1 (1998) 217}242

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When a helicopter is hovering, the tail rotor is operating in very disturbed airflow. As the helicopter achieves ETL, the tail rotor begins to generate much more thrust because of the less disturbed airflow. The helicopter reacts to the increased thrust by yawing. Therefore, as the helicopter achieves ETL, you must reduce tail rotor thrust by pedal input at about the same time that you need to make cyclic adjustments for lateral tracking, acceleration, and climb. Induced Flow As the rotor blades rotate, they generate what is called rotational relative wind.

A helicopter in forward flight, or hovering with a headwind or crosswind, has more molecules of air entering the aft portion of the rotor blade. Therefore, the angle of attack is less and the induced flow is greater at the rear of the rotor disk. 2-22 Resultant Resultant Lift Lift Thrust Thrust Drag Drag Helicopter movement Resultant Figure 2-41. Forces acting on the helicopter during sideward flight. when maneuvering the helicopter sideways to avoid such hazards from happening. Refer to Chapter 11, Helicopter Hazards and Emergencies.

If the amount of lift is greater than the actual weight, the helicopter accelerates upwards until the lift force equals the weight gain altitude; if thrust is less than weight, the helicopter accelerates downward. When operating near the ground, the effects of the proximity to the surface change this response. The drag of a hovering helicopter is mainly induced drag incurred while the blades are producing lift. There is, however, some profile drag on the blades as they rotate through the air and a small amount of parasite drag from the non-lift-producing surfaces of the helicopter, such as the rotor hub, cowlings, and 2-13 landing gear.

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