A Grammar of Tadaksahak: A Berberised Songhay Language by Regula Christiansen-Bolli
By Regula Christiansen-Bolli
The current learn offers an in depth description of Tadaksahak, a Northern Songhay department of the Nilo-Saharan language staff. it truly is spoken by means of nearly 30,000 humans, consisting usually of the ethnic staff of the Idaksahak who're dwelling within the East of Mali in addition to in remoted locations in western Niger. The e-book is split into 4 chapters giving an entire evaluate: the 1st brief bankruptcy presents information regarding the history of the Idaksahak. within the moment bankruptcy, the phonological positive factors of the language are defined, whereas the 3rd bankruptcy is devoted to the outline of the morphology of Tadaksahak. it truly is proven that verbal derivation pulls on unrelated Tamasheq for causative, reciprocal and heart in addition to passive. additionally, any verb root that's of Songhay starting place is suppleted whilst derived and a semantic identical of Tamasheq beginning takes its position. one other non-Songhay characteristic matters inflection the place the topic pronoun cliticizes to the verb and is often current even if a noun word holds the topic slot. The nominalization technique used depends upon the etymology of the time period, a function paralleled within the formation of adjectives. The final bankruptcy is devoted to the syntax of the language and offers forms of noun words. furthermore, the different sorts of easy clauses are taken care of in addition to focalization and topicalization in such clauses. query phrases and supplement clauses together with the 2 attainable relativization recommendations also are thought of, whereas the final part approximately complicated sentences provides subordinate clauses. within the appendices texts with glosses, lists of verb roots with their suppletions whilst derived, a wordlist Tadaksahak-English containing Songhay cognates and an index English-Tadaksahak are given.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Tadaksahak: A Berberised Songhay Language (Mali)
C) a₌ddumb(ú) íi₌se 3s₌cut 3p₌DAT feejí sheep [adːum'biːs(ǝ)fɛː'ʤi] he killed a sheep for them. In the transcription in this work we will write the dropped final V in brackets. Verbs that drop the last vowel all have a Songhay background. (42) Verbs dropping final /u/ Tadak dudú hunú tunú hurrú dumbú guŋgú húuru zumbú zurú gloss to pour to leave from to get up to look for to cut to guide (animal) to enter to get down to run Songhay (KCH) door hun tun wir dumbu gurje huru/a (KS) zumbu (KS) zuru (KS) 35 Phonological Structure /u/-final Verbs of Tamasheq origin seem to have an underlying /w/ that is normally realized as /u/.
Son fireplace night íibatan íiʒi íikaran ciidí gloss losses fly puppies salt 22 e/ee ee/aa a/aa aa/oo u/uu uu/oo o/oo ténada fever tǝzárcetan rolled leather sweat to be hanging ilánjezan éenar éeɣar strings drums (kind of) antelope, sp. cooking pot téeraɣa kǝreeri tadǝgeera áanar áaɣar heebú market haabú cheese racks eyebrow straw of cram-cram hair tabá áɣaba tamázaq abánaw áarab baaʃí abáaleq áɣaata to taste bit dispute grass, sp. Arab waterbag dust monitor lizard táaba áɣaata tamáaʒaq abáaleq óorag booʃí abóoraɣ áɣoora tobacco monitor lizard Tamasheq dust flame ashes date fruit 1-3am imúṇas camels imúuṇas hunú búkut leaving (n) to pound huurú búuɣu guná úuraɣ huurú amúudǝr arúuru sight gold fire animal back (body part) guurú óorag tooká abóoraɣ aróoko hobbled animals fire working together (n) iron flame ashes (kind of) date fruit saddle (kind of) borá takóṭayt akóko koká person cow hump tree, sp.
17) Short vowel contrast V i/e i/ǝ i/a i/u i/o e/ǝ e/a e/u lexeme danjí bí dis dis gloss charcoal yesterday to leave alone to leave alone lexeme áabit alíkaf aʃʃífit táddabit ígaẓan ízzay alíkaf didá dis hiná didá dis aɣǝɣi chaff, sp. horse saddle rope (saddle) night without moon cheeks son / fruit horse saddle to walk to leave alone to cook to walk to leave alone crevice éebǝt ilǝktan dǝgǝffǝt kǝṛǝbǝt agáẓaw ázanzo alákat tabá tus hunán dudú dos anóɣo tafáɣert tadábert oval receptacle pigeon taɣéeɣǝrt dried wood támbǝrt grazing in the héw ténada fér to cry fever to open háw tanáfrit fúr danjé be les dǝzdǝz gloss silence on (PP) make dirty to castrate (kind of) taking quickly (n) branches to give a light hit be joined cheek milk (kind of) twig to taste to erase to leave to flow to touch sickness of skin night (n) to attach suffering to throw 21 Phonological Structure e/o lés to make dirty dós to touch ǝ/a lǝbǝk tǝffak tǝnǝfas kǝrtǝba sǝgǝn dǝzdǝz tǝga meager (n) tomorrow sprinklings trousers to kneel down to castrate (kind of) to be taken tǝffak táafart tǝnúfas tugúdu sóɣon dós toogá tomorrow rope (kind of) stories tree, wood to hobble (knee) to touch T-shirt áɣlal zaná guná tarákat agádod báq amáɣo zará portable trough to churn (milk) to see shrub, sp.