A Grammar of Basque by José Ignacio Hualde, Jon Ortiz de Urbina

Grammar

By José Ignacio Hualde, Jon Ortiz de Urbina

Because the basically surviving pre-Indo-European language of western Europe, Basque has usually attracted the curiosity of linguists. while, ordinarily, descriptive paintings on Basque has basically curious about morphological positive aspects, together with its complicated approach of verb-argument contract and its strict ergative trend of inflection, over the past 20 years a brand new iteration of Basque linguists has produced very subtle, theoretically-informed paintings on many elements of the syntax, morphology and phonology of the language, revealing, for example, a strategy of focalization with many fascinating houses and the lifestyles in a few dialects of an accentual approach strikingly just like that of normal eastern. The e-book, bringing jointly this amassed wisdom at the constitution of Basque, is significantly extra entire than the other current grammar of the language. one other attention-grabbing characteristic of this grammar is that the outline is illustrated with fully-glossed examples extracted from quite a few written resources. even supposing the point of interest is the fashionable general language, dialectal positive aspects are thought of intimately and examples are taken from all dialects and classes.

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3. 4. 5. Text 5 Sources of examples References Index 851 851 856 859 860 868 872 872 872 874 881 887 893 893 897 903 906 912 915 922 935 Chapter 1 Introduction J. I. 1. The Basque language and its name The word 'Basque' derives, through French, from the name of the Vascones, a nation or tribe that in Roman times occupied an area of the Iberian Peninsula including most of present-day Navarre and neighboring parts of Aragon. Whereas, on the one hand, possibly not all Vascones were Basquespeaking (both non-Indo-European Iberian and Indo-European Celtiberian appear to have been used in parts of their territory) and, on the other hand, Pre-Basque and related languages seem to have been also spoken by some other neighboring nations (at least the Aquitanians in Gaul, see Gorrochategui 1995), in medieval times the name Vascones became identified with the speakers of the direct ancestor of the language we know as Basque.

Epigraphic evidence includes an inscription from the Roman period containing the name VMME SAH AR, interpretable as modern Basque ume zahar 'old child'. In the medieval Kingdom of Navarre, the most important political entity Basques have ever constituted for themselves, Basque was the language of the majority of the population, but it was never given the status of official or written language. Instead, this status was reserved first for Latin and then for the Navarrese Romance variety, which developed in the southeast of the Kingdom, and the Occitan of speakers of this language who were brought by the kings to settle in the towns.

The current sociolinguistic situation regarding standard Basque and the local dialects is a complex one. Simplifying greatly, several situations can be distinguished. In areas where Basque is extensively used in the social life of the town and where the local dialect is considerably different from the standard language (for instance, in coastal Bizkaian towns such as Lekeitio, Ondarroa and Bermeo), young speakers, most of whom have been educated in standard Basque, tend to be fluent in the local dialect and also, to varying degrees, in standard Basque, essentially keeping the two varieties as separate codes.

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